Perturbation theory and phase behavior calculations using Equations of State models
Equations of State (EoS) live at the heart of all thermodynamic calculations in chemical engineering applications as they allow for the determination of all related fluid properties such as vapor pressure, density, enthalpy, specific heat, and speed of sound, in an accurate and consistent way. Both macroscopic EoS models such as the classic cubic EoS models as well as models based on statistical mechanics and developed by means of perturbation theory are available. Under suitable pressure and temperature conditions, fluids of known composition may split in more than one phases, usually vapor and liquid while solids may also be present, each one exhibiting its own composition. Therefore, computational methods are utilized to calculate the number and the composition of the equilibrium phases at which a feed composition will potentially split so as to estimate their thermodynamic properties by means of the EoS. This chapter focuses on two of the most pronounced EoS models, the cubic ones and those based on statistical mechanics incorporating perturbation analysis. Subsequently, it describes the existing algorithms to solve phase behavior problems that rely on the classic rigorous thermodynamics context as well as modern trends that aim at accelerating computations.